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The Making of the Modern Police, 1780–1914

General Editor: Paul Lawrence
Volume Editors: Francis Dodsworth and Robert M Morris; Janet Clark, Rosalind Crone and Haia Shpayer-Makov; Francis Dodsworth and Robert M Morris; Janet Clark, Rosalind Crone and Haia Shpayer-Makov

Part I
3 volume set: 1232pp: 234x156mm: 2014
978 1 84893 371 2: £275/$495
Part II
3 volume set: 1552pp: 234x156mm: 2014
978 1 84893 372 9: £275/$495

'will be essential for any serious researcher on early police history.'

Police History Society newsletter

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The modern professional police force is probably one of Britain’s most significant exports. In little over a century, Britain went from having a largely amateur and local law enforcement system to the type of police force we still recognize today. The first modern police force of its kind, it has become the model which has been copied and adapted across the world.

This is not a story of unbroken progress. Newer methods of policing challenged English ideas of liberty and were greeted with distrust. Over time changing social conditions, particularly with the rise of large industrial cities, led to a growing acceptance of the need for new systems of law and order. Eventually the modern police force came in to being as part of a broader process of the centralization and professionalization of government during the nineteenth century.

Over six themed volumes this edited collection of pamphlets, government publications, printed ephemera and manuscript sources looks at the development of the first modern police force. It will be of interest to social and political historians, criminologists and those interested in the development of the detective novel in nineteenth-century literature.
  • Contains over 250 primary resources
  • More than a third of the texts are previously unpublished
  • Sources include correspondence, pamphlets, parliamentary records, police memoranda and notebooks, speeches, flybills and memoirs
  • Texts come from seventeen archives, including the Metropolitan Police Archive and regional county record offices
  • Editorial apparatus includes a general introduction, volume introductions, headnotes and endnotes
  • A consolidated index appears in the final volume
Part I

General Introduction

Volume I: The ‘Idea’ of Policing

Timothy Beck and Ben Sedgley, Observations on Mr Fielding’s Enquiry (1751), excerpts; John Fielding, A Plan for Preventing Robberies (1755); Jonas Hanway, The Citizen’s Monitor (1780), excerpts; Thomas Gilbert, A Plan of Police (1781), excerpt; Edward Sayer, Observations on the Police (1784), excerpts; William Blizard, Desultory Reflections on Police (1785), excerpts; William Mainwaring, An Address to the Grand Jury (1785), excerpt; George Barrett, Establishing a System of Police (1786), excerpt; A Letter to Archibald MacDonald (1786), excerpts; Henry Zouch, Hints Respecting the Public Police (1786), excerpts; William Man Godschall, A General Plan of Parochial and Provincial Police (1787), excerpts; W H, Some Hints Towards a Revival of the Penal Laws (1787), excerpts; David Williams, Regulations of Parochial Police (1797), excerpts; Patrick Colquhoun, A General View of the National Police System (1799), excerpts; Observations on a Late Publication (1800), excerpts

Volume 2: Reforming the Police in the Nineteenth Century

Contemporary Material

Report from the Select Committee on the Police of the Metropolis (1828), excerpts; Metropolitan Police Improvement Act 1829, excerpts; Albany Fonblanque, ‘The Ancient Watch and New Police’, Examiner (1829); Metropolitan Police Act 1833; Report from the Select Committee on the Police of the Metropolis (1834), excerpts; Municipal Corporations Act 1835, excerpt; First Report of the Commissioners Appointed to Inquire as to the Best Means of Establishing an Efficient Constabulary (1839), excerpts; ‘Rural Police’, A Letter from Home Secretary to Lord Lieutenant of Lancashire, Essex Standard, and General Advertiser for the Eastern Counties (1839); County Police Act 1839; County and District Constabulary (1839), excerpts.
Rural Police in Essex: ‘Essex Adjourned Session: Establishment of the Rural Police in Essex’, Essex Standard, and General Advertiser for the Eastern Counties (1839); 'Rural Police', Essex Standard, and General Advertiser for the Eastern Counties (1839).
General Birmingham Police Act 1839, excerpts; 'Rebecca Riots' (1843); ‘The Police System of London’, Edinburgh Review (1852), excerpts; First and Second Reports from the Select Committee Appointed to Consider the Expediency of Adopting a More Uniform System of Police in England and Wales, and in Scotland (1852–3), excerpts; County and Borough Police Act 1856, excerpts; Police (Counties and Boroughs) Bill 1856, excerpts; General Regulations, Instructions and Orders for the Government and Guidance of the Metropolitan Police Force (1862), excerpts; The Police Force of the Metropolis in 1868 (1868); Disturbances (Metropolis) (1886); The Cass Case (1887); Local Government Act 1888, excerpts; Royal Commission on the Duties of the Metropolitan Police (1908), excerpts

Memoir and Biography
R Anderson, The Lighter Side of My Official Life (1910), excerpt; T A Cavanagh, Scotland Yard Past and Present (1893), excerpts; George H Greenham, Scotland Yard Experiences (1904), excerpts; R Jervis, Chronicles of a Victorian Detective (1995), excerpts; S H Jeyes and F D How, The Life of Sir Howard Vincent (1912), excerpts. Two Metropolitan Detectives: Andrew Lansdowne, A Life’s Reminiscences of Scotland Yard (1890), excerpts; Jack Littlechild, Reminiscences of Chief Inspector Littlechild (1894), excerpts; H R P Gamon, The London Police Court Today and Tomorrow (1907), excerpt; H Smith, From Constable to Commissioner (1910), excerpt; Melville L Macnaghten, Days of My Years (1914), excerpts; John William Nott-Bower, Fifty-Two Years a Policeman (1926), excerpts

Volume 3: Policing the Poor

Poverty and Crime
Randle Jackson, Considerations on the Increase of Crime (1828), excerpt; William Augustus Miles, Poverty, Mendacity and Crime (1839), excerpt; John Clay, ‘On the Effect of Good or Bad Times on Committals to Prison’, Journal of the Statistical Society of London (1855); [Henry Wilkinson Holland], ‘Thieves and Thieving’, Cornhill Magazine (1860); Michael James Whitty, A Proposal for Diminishing Crime, Misery and Poverty in Liverpool (1865), excerpt; William Hoyle, On the Cause of Crime (1876), excerpt; Henry Solly, ‘Destitute, Poor and Criminal Classes’, National Association for the Promotion of Social Science (1868); William Harbutt Dawson, The Vagrancy Problem (1910), excerpts

Policing the Poor in Practice
John Fairburn, Fairburn's Abstract of the New Metropolitan Police Act (1829), excerpts; Bristol Police. Instruction Book (1836), excerpts; Selections on Vagrancy from Justice of the Peace (1880); Selection of Metropolitan Police Orders (1859–76); 'Distress: Reports from Metropolitan Police Divisions' (1879), excerpts; 'Tramps and Vagrants in Trafalgar Square' (1887); Chief Constable's Reports to Quarter Sessions (1890–6), excerpts; Vagrancy: Night Shelters for Homeless Men and Women (1889–92); 'Unemployed Men Parading Streets for the Purpose of Soliciting Alms' (1886–1903), excerpts

Personal Reflections on Policing and Poverty
Thomas Woollaston, Police Experiences (1884), excerpt; William Henderson, Clues: or Leaves from a Chief Constable’s Notebook (1889), excerpt; James Bent, Criminal Life (1891), excerpt; Thomas Smethurst, Reminiscences of a Bolton and Stalybridge Policeman 1888–1922 (1983), excerpts; Jerome Caminada, Twenty-Five Years of Detective Life (1895–1901), excerpts; Richard Jervis, Lancashire’s Crime and Criminals (1908), excerpt; Robert Albert Fuller, Recollections of a Detective (1912), excerpt; Frederick Porter Wensley, Detective Days (1931), excerpt; Benjamin Leeson, Lost London. The Memoirs of an East End Detective (1934), excerpt; William Cameron, Hawkie; The Autobiography of a Gangrel (1888), excerpt; Anon., Scenes from my Life (1858), excerpt; Clarence Rook, The Hooligan Nights (1899), excerpt; Edwin Grey, Cottage Life in a Hertfordshire Village (1935), excerpts

Part II

Volume 4: Policing Entertainment

List of Nineteenth-Century Metropolitan Police Divisions (1888)

Part I: Suppression – and its Limits
Charles Shaw, When I was a Child, by an Old Potter (1903), excerpt; Isaac Binns, From Village to Town (1882), excerpt; William Kelly, Notices Illustrative of the Drama (1865), excerpt; Horncastle Policemen’s Notebooks (1838–57), excerpts; Superintendent Heaton’s Huddersfield Crusade: Extracts from the Leeds Times, 1848–51; British Library’s Fillinham Collection, Volume Four: Fairs, excerpts; ‘The Bench, the Police and the Wakes’, Oldham Chronicle, 3 September 1864; Reports from the Superintendent of ‘F’ Division, Metropolitan Police, on the Difficulties of Policing Free Vintners’ Houses in London (1841–3); [John Gritton], The Lord’s Day Observance Society, The Licensing Act of 1872 (1874), excerpts; Jem Mace, Fifty Years a Fighter (1908); Will Thorne, My Life’s Battles (1925), excerpts; ‘Football in the Streets and Parks’, Preston Herald, 29 March 1884; Police Reports on Street Betting in Kingston (1894) and West Ham (1896); Betting at Sporting Events within the Metropolitan Police District (1909–10)

Case Study I: The Suppression of Guy Fawkes Celebrations in Lewes, 1847
[M A Lower], ‘An Old Inhabitant’, Observations on the Doings in Lewes on the Evening of the Fifth of November 1846 (1847); Petition of Lewes Householders to the Magistrates, September 1847; Brighton Gazette, October–November 1847, excerpts; Depositions of the Officers of the East Sussex Constabulary for the Assize Court

Part II: Compromise and Co-Existence
Complaint Book, ‘H’ or Whitechapel Division, London Metropolitan Police, 1843–6, excerpts; James Bent, Criminal Life: Reminiscences of 42 Years as a Police Officer (1891), excerpts; Correspondence of Charles Babbage (1859–68), excerpts; Street Music and the Metropolitan Police, 1894–5; Hugh Shimmin, Liverpool Life (1856), excerpts; ‘Police Notebooks’ (Group B), Charles Booth Archive (1897–1900), excerpts; H. R. P. Gamon, The London Police Court, Today and Tomorrow (1907), excerpts; Minutes of the Manchester Watch Committee, 1894–6, excerpts; Policing the Seaside: Excerpts from the Blackpool Police General Orders and the Chief Constable of Blackpool’s Reports to the Watch Committee, 1887–1913

Part III: Cooperation and Protection
‘Lord’ George Sanger, Seventy Years a Showman (1908), excerpts; Further extracts from the British Library’s Fillinham Collection, Volume Four: Fairs; Protecting the Fairgrounds of Greater London, 1855–88: Extracts
from the Home Office Papers on Fairs; Extracts from the Metropolitan Police Orders, 1871; Policing Association Football: Extracts from the Athletic News, 1888–96

Case Study II: The Metropolitan Police and the Protection of London’s Theatrical Culture
Timothy Cavanagh, Scotland Yard Past and Present (1893), excerpts; Extracts from the Lord Chamberlain’s Papers, 1843–65; [Mrs William Pitt Byrne], Undercurrents Overlooked (1860), excerpts; Extracts from the Select Committee on Theatrical Licences and Regulations (1866)

Volume 5: Policing Public Order and Politics

Protest and Order

Francis Raynes, An Appeal to the Public containing an Account of Services Rendered during the Disturbances in the North of England (1817), excerpts; Report from the Committee on the State of the Police of the Metropolis; with, the Minutes of Evidence taken before the Committee; and, an Appendix of Sundry Papers (1816), excerpt; Frank Ongley Darvall, Popular Disturbances and Public Order in Regency England (1934), excerpt; Selection on disturbances at Queen Caroline’s funeral and the funerals of Richard Honey and George Frances shot dead by soldiers (1821), excerpts; ‘Trials of the Bristol Rioters’, Entry of the Special Commissioners; Sermon at the Cathedral; Charge to the Grand Jury; Finding the Bills; and other Interesting Particulars (1832), excerpt; Key, Mayor, ‘An Especial Court held on Friday the Fourth day of November, 1831, and in the Second year of the reign of William the Fourth, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland King, Etc.’ (1831)

The New Police and Public Order
‘An Authentic Account of the Riotous Meeting near Grey’s Inn Road; with Full Particulars of the Sad Murder of Robert Cully a Policeman, and the Stabbing of Serj. Brookes’ (1833); Report from the Select Committee on Metropolitan Police (1833), excerpt; Selection on Chartist disturbances 1848 and Lord Mayor’s Report (1848), excerpts; Selections from Metropolitan Police Orders 12 March 1848 and 8–13 April 1848, and Metropolitan Police Order 12 June 1848 (1848), excerpts; Selections from correspondence between the Duke of Wellington,
Sir Richard Mayne Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police and Home Secretary Sir George Grey (1848), excerpts; First Report of Commissioners, Royal Commission for the Exhibition of 1851 (1851), excerpts; Selections from correspondence between the Commissioners of the Metropolitan Police, the Exhibition Commissioners and the Home Secretary (1850–1), excerpts

Political Protest and Public Space
Selections on Hyde Park Riots 1855, 1862 and 1866 (1855–66), excerpts; Report on Alleged Disturbances on Public Peace in Hyde Park on Sunday 1 July 1855 (1855), excerpts; ‘Summary of Police Reports Received in the Home Office with Reference to Political Meetings held in the Metropolis during the Years 1867–1870 Inclusive’ (1871), excerpt; Joseph Clayton, Militant Methods in History (1913), excerpt; Trafalgar Square Riots 1887, cuttings from the Pall Mall Gazette relating to disturbances from 18 October to 24 December 1887 (1887), excerpts; John E Williams, The Early History of the Social Democratic Federation (1886), excerpt; Funeral of Alfred Linnell – Letter from Metropolitan Police Commissioner Sir Charles Warren to the Home Office (1887); William Morris, ‘Alfred Linnell Killed in Trafalgar Square, A Death Song’ (1887); Selections on the appointment of ‘Specials’ by the City of London Police during the Trafalgar Square disturbances in 1887 (1887), excerpts;  George Macaulay Trevelyan, The Life of John Bright (1913), excerpt

Militant Women: Public Expression and Secret Police
Report of the Departmental Committee on the Duties of the Police with Respect to the Preservation of Order at Public Meetings (1909), excerpt; Treatment of the Women’s Deputations of November 18th, 22nd and 23rd, 1910, by the Police (1911); F W Pethick-Lawrence, ‘The Man’s Share’ (Mr Pethick Lawrence’s Defence of Militancy delivered from the Dock of the Old Bailey on May 20th 1912) (1912), excerpt; Dame Christabel Pankhurst, The Militant Methods of the NWSPU (1913), excerpt; Ian Adams, ‘The Memoires of an Old Detective 1910–1937: Ralph Kitchener’ (2010), unpublished; Sir Basil Thomson, The Scene Changes (1937), excerpt

Volume 6: The Development of Detective Policing

Part I: Evolution of Police Detection

1. Milestones in the Development of the Detective Police:
Third Report from the Committee on the State of the Police of the Metropolis (1818), excerpt; Report from the Select Committee on the Police of the Metropolis (1822), excerpt; Report from the Select Committee on the Petition of Frederick Young and Others (1833), excerpts; Memorandum relative to detective powers of the police (1842); Police Orders, 14 August 1862, excerpt; Report of the Departmental Committee on the Metropolitan Police (1868), excerpts; Report of the Departmental Commission on the State, Discipline, and Organisation of the Detective Force of the Metropolitan Police (1878), excerpts; Report of the Departmental Commission on the State, Discipline, and Organisation of the Metropolitan Police Force (Other than the Criminal Investigation Department) (1879), excerpt; C. E. Howard Vincent, A Police Code and Manual of the Criminal Law (1881), excerpts; James Monro, A Report on the History of the Convict Supervision Office (1886); Patrick Mcintyre, ‘Scotland Yard’, Reynolds’s Newspaper, 3 February–19 May 1895, excerpts; Melville L Macnaghten, Days of My Years (1914), excerpt; Circular by C E Troup to the Chief Constables, Borough Police,
20 April 1906; Letter by A C Bruce (Acting Commissioner) to Under Secretary of State, 15 September 1909

Part II: Representations of the Detective Police
2. Changing Attitudes in the Press Towards Police Detectives:
‘The Press and the Police’, Journalist, 4 December 1889; ‘Effiency of the Metropolitan Police’, Examiner, 30 April 1842; Editorial, The Times, 2 December 1845; ‘Police Detectives’, Leisure Hour, 29 October 1857; ‘Detectives as they Are’, Chambers’s Journal, 9 July 1870; Editorial, Daily News, 21 November 1877; ‘Detectives’, Saturday Review, 9 February 1884; ‘Detectives and their Work’, All the Year Round, 25 April 1885; ‘The Police and the Criminals of London – I.’, Pall Mall Gazette,
8 October 1888, excerpt; ‘Arrested!’, Daily News, 1 August 1910, excerpt; William Henry Harris: ‘Police and Perjury’, Penny Illustrated Paper, 1 October 1910; ‘The Detective Service from Within’, Penny Illustrated Paper,
8 October 1910. 3. The Image of Police Detectives in Literary Works: Pseudo-Memoirs of Detectives: Experiences of a Real Detective by Inspector F, ed. ‘Waters’ (1862), excerpt; Charles Martel, The Detective’s Note-Book (1860), excerpts; Arthur Morrison, ‘The Case of the Dead Skipper’, Adventures of Martin Hewitt (1896); Vivian Grey, Stories of Scotland Yard (1906), excerpt. 4. Portraits and Self-Portraits of Police Detectives: Ex-Detective Inspectors Baum and Mutton: ‘Ex-Detective Inspr. J Baum’, Police Review and Parade Gossip, 24 August 1900; ‘Ex-Det. Inspr. W. Mutton’, Police Review and Parade Gossip, 24 January 1902; ‘On Duty in Plain Clothes’, Cassell’s Saturday Journal, 28 May 1892; John Sweeney, At Scotland Yard (1904), excerpts; Robert A Fuller, Recollections of a Detective (1912), excerpts


General Editor: Paul Lawrence, The Open University
Volume Editor: Francis Dodsworth, The Open University
Volume Editor: Robert M Morris, The Open University
Volume Editor: Janet Clark, Queen's University, Belfast
Volume Editor: Rosalind Crone, The Open University
Volume Editor: Haia Shpayer-Makov, University of Haifa
Volume Editor: Francis Dodsworth, The Open University
Volume Editor: Robert M Morris, The Open University
Volume Editor: Janet Clark, Queen's University, Belfast
Volume Editor: Rosalind Crone, The Open University
Volume Editor: Haia Shpayer-Makov, University of Haifa
  • 'will be essential for any serious researcher on early police history.'

    Police History Society newsletter

This title is now available to buy from ebrary:

ISBNs: 9781848933712 978-1-84893-371-2 ISBNs: 9781848933729 978-1-84893-372-9 ISBNs: 9781781446324 978-1-78144-632-4 ISBNs: 9781781447482 978-1-78144-748-2

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